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A Graded Course 


Grade 7 


Help your Child understand the stories 
from the Ouran 

Goodnight Stories 

from the 


Quran Stories for Little Hearts 

Quran Stories for Little Hearts 



This course has been designed to present the young 
students a comprehensive Islamic education, comprising 
general Islamic knowledge based on the Quran and 
Hadith. Instead of teaching moral principles directly, they 
are taught through themes chosen from the Quran and 
other Islamic Sources. Though basically intended for use 
as a school textbook, it is also an ideal tool for home 
schooling involving both the parents and children. In 
this way children will not only learn the ethical values 
conveyed by the message of Islam but will also be 
stimulated to want to know more about Islamic 
teachings when they grow up. 


ISBN 81-7898-448-2 


Islamic Studies 

A Graded Course 
Grade 7 

Mohammad Khalid Perwez 


First published 2005 
Reprinted 2010 
© Goodword Books 2010 

Goodword Books 

1, Nizamuddin West Market, New Delhi-1 10 013 
Printed in India 

see our complete catalogue at 


1. Islam: An Introduction 4 

2. Articles of Faith 8 

3. Belief in Angels 12 

4. Belief in the Books of Allah. 16 

5. Belief in the Messengers of Allah 20 

6. Belief in the Last Day 24 

7. Hadith and Sunnah 28 

8. The Prophethood and the Prophets 33 

9. The Story of the Prohpet Hud 37 

10. A Rightly Guided Caliph: Ali Ibn Abi Talib 40 

11. Islamic Society 45 

12. The Life of the Prohpet Muhammad 49 

13. A Surah from the Quran 57 

Chapter 1 

Islam: An Introduction 

You have been taught in the earlier grades about Islam and some 
of its teachings. We shall have further discussions about these subjects 
in this grade that will help increase your understanding and 
knowledge. You must remember that Islam is a religion which teaches 
man to surrender himself completely before the one Allah, who is 
the Creator of the universe. The word Islam is an Arabic word which 
means “surrender.” Therefore, Islam calls upon everyone to surrender 
himself completely before the will of Allah. In other words, accepting 
Islam is to accept the fact that Allah the Almighty is the Creator of 
this universe and everything in it, and we must obey only Allah. 
Islam is the religion which has been appointed for mankind to follow 
by none other than the Almighty Himself. Allah in His infallible 
Book, the Holy Quran, makes this fact quite explicit. 

At the command of Allah, Islam came to the people through His 
prophets. Allah sent them to teach Islam to mankind at different times, 
and He perfected and completed Islam through His last prophet 
Muhammad #. Commanded by Allah, the Prophet Muhammad, the 
last prophet of Allah, taught mankind everything there was to know 
about Islam and its noble teachings. 


Islam is a natural religion; the Quran describes Islam as deen- 
e-fitrah — a religion which is compatible with nature. Every child is 
born a child of nature, which means that every child is bom with a 
natural disposition towards this religion, which calls for submission 
to the will of Allah. Therefore, Islam is resignation of one’s will to 
the Supreme Decree. It requires the bringing of one’s own will into 
accord with the Supreme Will. If one were to ponder on the working 
of the universe, and its eternal principles of harmony and silence, 
one would understand how everything in the universe is following 
the commands of the Almighty. Likewise, mankind should also live 
in the world following the principles laid down by Almighty Allah. 

The essential task of man, therefore, is to work for harmony in 
his own life and also in the world surrounding him. His role on earth 
is to understand the laws of nature and conform to them, because 
when he neglects to understand these divine laws and leaves the 
path of Allah, the consequences prove harmful to him. Everything in 
the universe has 
completely submitted 
itself to the will of 
Allah. All things on the 
earth and in space 
follow Allah’s 
command. This shows 
that submission to 
Allah is the only true 
religion for both man 
and the universe. 

Islam, based on scientific thinking and sound logic, relates its 
principles to the rules of logic and scientific theories. Therefore, it 
is the duty of all Muslims to understand and grasp this connection. 
The Quran is replete with passages calling upon everyone to look 
into the universe to discover its laws and to arrive at the firm 


conviction that Allah is the Creator of the universe and everything in 
it. These references are directed at reason with the expectation that 
man will search for and find out the truth, so that his belief may be 
based on rationality and facts. 

The Quran tells mankind to look at the universe and discover 
how flawless it is. It says in verse 3 of Surah 67: 


“He (Allah) created the seven heavens 
one above another; no want of j 
proportion will you see in the creation of ! 

(Allah) Most Gracious. So turn up your * 
eyes again: do you see any flaw?” 




At another place the Quran tells human beings to listen to their 
reason and the grounds for their disbelief, when Allah has spread in 
the univrse all signs of His majesty and power. The Quran says in 
surah 21 verse 30: 

“Do not the unbelievers see that the 
heavens and the earth were joined 
together (as one unit of creation) before 
we clove them asunder? We made from 
water every living thing. Will they not 
then belive?” 





Fill in the Blanks 

a. The meaning of the Arabic word “Islam” is to 


b. Allah sent to teach Islam to mankind (prophets, angels). 

c. Man’s natural dispotion is called ( fitrah/isnad ). 

d. The Prophet Muhammad is the prophet of Allah. (First/last) 

e. The Prophet Muhammad received the Holy book . (Quran / Injeel). 

Match the Columns 

Column A 

Column B 




Natural disposition 



The Quran 

The Creator 


The Book of Allah 

Answer the following questions 

a. Define fitrah. 

b. What is Islam? 

c. Why did Allah send prophets? 

d. Why does Allah tell mankind to explore the universe? How does it help us 
to know Allah? 


Chapter 2 

Articles of Faith 

Tawhid (Oneness of Allah) 

You already know 
that Islam is the religion 
which has been fixed by 
Allah for human beings 
to follow. Now, it is 
essential to know what 
Islam preaches. There 
are some basic 
teachings of Islam 
which we must always 
remember. Islam calls 
for complete understanding of these teachings, otherwise it would 
not be possible for anybody to follow Islam both in body and spirit. 
Tawhid is the most important teaching of Islam. Tawhid is the belief 
in the oneness or unity of Allah. Tawhid is faiih in Allah being One, 
Alone, the Eternal and the Absolute. Tawhid means that God alone 
is the Creator, the Power behind the universe and the Sole Source of 
its guidance. Allah knows everything, sees everything and is able to 
do anything. Tawhid is acceptance of God’s supremacy over the entire 
universe. No other power in the universe can act except as God 
wills it. Everything in the universe belongs to God. Tawhid demands 
that we should not associate any partners with God. If anyone tries 
to liken Allah to any created being, or to suggest that other things in 
the universe somehow share in Allah’s creative power, or have His 
knowledge or ability to guide or forgive, this is known as shirk, 


which is a great sin and Allah says in the Holy Quran that He will 
forgive all sins except shirk. If one is guilty of shirk, he ceases to be 
a Muslim. 

Tawhid teaches us: 

D to believe in the one Allah 

□ to surrender to the Will of Allah. 

O to accept God as the most Powerful, most High, the 
One who wields control over all of the universe 
and all beings. 

□ to trust Allah and believe that everything that comes 
to us is from Allah. 

D to lead a responsible life, as one day we shall all 
be answerable to Allah. 

The essence of tawhid is explained in the Quran in Surah al- 
Ikhlas. Al-ikhlas means ‘purity of faith.’ This surah sums up the 
Muslim concept of tawhid, which forms the basis of Islam. 

‘He is Allah, the One and Only. 

Allah is Eternal and Absolute. 

He begets not, nor is He begotten 

There is none equal to Him.’ 

(Surah: 112:1-4) 

This is the belief in the one Allah, who is ever-present and 
everlasting, who was not bom, nor does he give birth to anyone. 
Allah is the Creator of the entire universe and everything in it. 
Everything Allah has created has a beginning and an end. It is only 
Allah the Creator and the Maker who will remain when everything 
else perishes. The sun, the moon, the mountains, the earth, the plants, 
the trees, animals, etc., — all will become dust one day, but Allah 




will endure, because He is everlasting, and neither death nor slumber 
will ever approach Him. 

The Beautiful Names of Allah 

Allah, the Creator of everything, has beautiful names, which 
describe His various powers and symbolize His attributes. These 
are mentioned in the Quran, which says in surah 7, verse 180, ‘The 
most Beautiful Names belong to Allah. So call on Him by them. ” 
These beautiful names of Allah, which are ninety nine in number, are 
called asmaehusna. They express every aspect of His divinity and 
are the signs of the essence and the cause of all existence. Indeed 
His attributes are manifested throughout His entire creation. 

There is a hadith mentioned in the hadith book of Al-Bukhari 
which relates that whoever remembers all the ninety-nine names of 
Allah shall enter paradise. Some of the ninety nine names of Allah 
are given below. It is our duty to memorize all beautiful names of 

1 . Ar- Rahman or The Merciful 

2. Ar-Rahim or The Beneficent 

3 . Al-Ahad or The One 

4. Al-Hayy or The Everlasting 

5. Al-Khaliq or The Creator 

6. Al-Musawwir or The Shaper of Beauty 

7. Al-Qayyum or The Self-Existing one 

8. Al-Wahid or The Only one 

9. Al-Malik or The Absolute Ruler 

10. Al-Quddus or the Pure One. 



Fill in the Blanks 

a. Muslims believe in Allah, (one/two) 

b. is the Creator of the entire universe. (Allah/Prophet) 

c . Associating partners with Allah is called . (shirk/people of 


d. Allah has beautiful names. (Fifty/Ninety-nine) 

Match the Columns 

Column A 

Column B 


The Creator 

Taw heed 

The purity of faith 


The Pure One. 

Al Khaliq 

The oneness of Allah 


The Beautiful Names of Allah. 

Answer the following questions 

a. Define tawhid. 

b. How does one commit shirk? 

c. What does tawhid teach us? 

d. Define asmaehusna. 


Chapter 3 

Belief in Angels 

After belief in tawhid, Islam calls for belief in the angels. 
Created by Allah, they are creatures of light, with neither sex nor 
carnal desires, and they pervade the entire universe. The word ‘angel’ 
means ‘messenger’, and this is precisely what the angels do — 
besides performing several other tasks set for them by Allah. Allah 
has commissioned the angels to convey His messages to His prophets 
so that they may discharge their duties of bringing His word to fellow 
human beings and inviting them to tread the right path. 

Allah says in the Quran. 

They never disobey Allah ’s command and faithfully do His 
biddings. (Surah 66, Verse 6). 

Angels have wings — two, three or four as mentioned in the 
Quran, but Allah has given them the power to assume any shape they 
like. An angel may even take human shape, as Jibrail did to the 
Prophet Ibrahim and to Maryam, the mother of the Prophet Isa, or 
Jesus. But according to a hadith, when Muhammad^ first saw Jibrail 


it was as a huge creature covering the horizon between heaven and 

Allah has appointed several tasks for the angels which they 
perform unfailingly: 

1 . Supporting Allah’s throne and chanting His glory from around 
it. The Quran says: 

2. Watching over those lodged in the gardens of Paradise, about 
whom Allah says: 

3. Meting out punishment to the inmates of Hell. 

The Quran describes them in Surah 66 verse 6 
as “the angels, stern and severe. ” 

4. Coming down with Allah’s revelations to His prophets and 
messengers, with Jibrail as their chief. The Quran says: 


- “Those who support the throne, and ] 
those who stand around it, give glory to l 
their Lord with due praises. ” J 

TThe angel will come to them from every f 
gate, saying. ‘Peace be upon you for all J 

that you have endured?” J 

“Truly, from the Lord of the world this 
- Book has come down upon your heart 
through the Faithful spirit (Jibrail), so i 




5 . Recording the deeds of men. 

“Surely, there are guardians watching ] 
over you — honoured scribes, who know < 
all that you do. ” (82:9) j 


6. Taking away the souls of those whose life spans have come to 
an end. 

“Say: The Angel of Death appointed to i 
take charge of all of you will carry off i 
your souls.” (32:11) A 

Believing in the angels is one of the articles of a Muslim s faith. 
Anybody who denies the existence of angels or claims that angels 
are the daughters of Allah or mocks their power or ridicules them or 
attempts to draw pictures of them based on human understanding is 
jeopardizing his faith; he is actually deviating from Islam. Therefore, 
a Muslim must believe in angels in the manner explained in the Quran 
and as taught by the Prophet Muhammad 

There are four famous angels who are mentioned in the Quran 
and described below: 

1 . Jibrail - The messenger of God who brought 
revelations to the chosen ones. 

2. Azrail - The angel of death who is present at death 
beds to receive the souls. 

3. Israfil - One who calls all souls on the Day of 

4. Mikail: The protector of the faithful and guardians of 
places of worship. 



True or False 



a. Angels are self-created creatures. 

b . Angels do not have wings . 

c . The angel Jibril brought revelations to all the prophets. 

d. Angels are made of fire. 

e. It is not necessary for Muslims to believe in angels. 

Match the Columns 

— ^ 


Column A 

Column B 


The one who will call all souls on 

the Day of Judgement 


The protector of the faithful 


Brought Quranic revelation to the prophets 


The angel of death 


The messengers 

Answer the following questions 

a. Both angels and human beings are the creatures of Allah. How is an angel 
different from a human being? 

b. Define the tasks performed by the angels. 

c . Name the famous angels mentioned in the Quran. 


Chapter 4 

Belief in the Books 
of Allah 

You already know that belief 
in Books of Allah is an essential 
article of faith. Allah sent down 
many heavenly books which 
contained His teachings for mankind 
in order to lead them from darkness to 
light. Of the many sent down by Allah, we only know about the five 
books which are mentioned in the Quran. These five heavenly books 
were revealed to five different prophets of Allah. 

Muslims believe that the first prophet was the first man, Adam, 
and that between Adam ^uf and Mohammad the last prophet of 
Allah, there had been at least 124,000 other messengers of whom at 
least twenty four are mentioned in the Quran. Allah chose His 
messengers much to the surprise and reluctance of some of them. 
Allah did not pick the great and famous, the wealthy and influential — 
but rather those who lived virtuous and honourable lives. 

The five heavenly books which are mentioned in the Quran are 
as follows: 

7. Saheefa or the Scroll 

2. Taruat or the Torah 

3. Zabur or the Psalms 

4. Irijeel or the Gospel 

5. The Quran 


The Saheefa was revealed to the Prophet Ibrahim It was a 
collection of words of wisdom and commands. This book is now 
completely lost. The Quran speaks of this book in the following 

' “Those will surely prosper who purify 
themselves, who remember the name of 
~ their Lord and pray to Him. Yet you 
prefer the worldly life, although the 
Hereafter is better and more lasting. 

Truly, all this was in the earlier 
scriptures of Ibrahim and Musa. ” 

( 87 : 14 - 19 ) 

«* * »«»»»> 

The Taurat was revealed to the Prophet Musa ff. Allah says in 
the Quran. 

■■■■Hi i 

'“And He sent down the Torah and the \ 

Gospel.” (3:3) j 

The Taurat contained the true faith and the laws given to the 
Prophet Musa ff. It commanded justice in everything and invited all 
men to repentance. It also foretold the coming of the Prophet 
Muhammad But the original Taurat was tampered with and 
changed by successive generations of the Children of Israel. As the 
Quran says: 

- “Among the Jews there are some who 1 

take words out of their context. ” (4:46)j 


nr- - tt in ■ ■ -- — - - - - 1 


The Zabur, or the Psalms, was revealed to the Prophet 
Dawud $S. Allah says in the Quran: 

- “ To Dawud We gave the Zabur j 

( the Psalms ) ” (1 7:55 ) J 


^ - - . i 

The Injil, or the Bible, was given to the Prophet Isa (Jesus) £gj. 
It was also a Book sent down from Heaven confirming the earlier 
scripture, the Taurat, and giving the glad tidings of the coming of the 
Prophet Muhammad The Quran says: 

After those prophets we sent forth Isa, 

— the son of Maryam, confirming the 
Taurat already revealed, and gave him j 
the Injil, in which there is guidance and ■ 
light. ” (5:46) 

The Injil, or the Gospel given to the Prophet Isa contained 
belief in one God and commandments full of divine wisdom, such as 
the offering of ritual prayers, giving alms to the poor, inviting people 
to a higher standard of moral life and practicing mutual love and 
forgiveness in society. But later generations changed the original 
scripture and now only a doctored or interpolated version of the 
original Gospel is extant today. 

The Holy Quran, which is the last of the Heavenly Books sent 
down by Allah, was revealed to the last prophet. The Quran was 
revealed in the Arabic language and comprises 6236 verses spread 
over 114 chapters. The Prophet Muhammad ^ says of the Quran: I 
am leaving behind Allah’s Book and my sunnah. You will never be 
astray, after me, as long as you hold fast to these two. (Sahih Muslim) 



True or False 

a. Allah has not sent any Holy books to mankind. 

b. The Quran is the Holy book revealed by Allah to His first prophet. 

c. The Prophet Adam was the first man and the first Prophet of Allah. 

d. The Injeel, or the Bible, was revealed to the Prophet Isa or Jesus. 

Match the Columns 

Column A 

Column B 

The Saheefa 

The Prophet Muhammad 

The Taurat 

The Prophet Isa or Jesus 

The Zabur 

The Prophet Ibrahim 

The Injeel 

The Prophet Musa 

The Quran 

The Prophet Dawud 

£ Answer the following questions: 

a. What do you understand by the phrase “Holy Books of Allah”? 

b. How many Holy Books has Allah sent? Can you name them and also the 
prophets to whom these books were revealed? 

c. Why is the Quran the only book of divine guidance for mankind today? 

d. How many surahs and verses are there in the Quran? 


Chapter 5 

Belief in the 
Messengers of Allah 

Anyone having faith in Allah must also believe in all the 
messengers sent by Him for the guidance of all mankind. A Muslim 
cannot believe in some of the messengers and disbelieve in others. 
Allah says in the Quran: 

messengers, and those who draw a line 
between Allah and His messengers, 
saying: ‘We believe in some but deny 
others, ’ thus seeking a middle way — 
these indeed are the unbelievers. And We 

Allah in His infinite wisdom has chosen to send down 
messengers to each and every people to guide them to the right path. 
The Quran says: 

The purpose in sending down messengers is that on the Day of 
Judgement human beings are left with no excuses for having gone 
astray in this life. Allah has chosen these messengers from among 
men like us; they eat, drink, sleep and marry. They are not different 
in their human needs. What distinguishes them from others is their 

Those who deny Allah and His 

have prepared for the unbelievers a 
humiliating punishment.” (4:150-151 ) 


-There have never been a people but a j 
warner has been sent among them. ” f 


having been chosen by God to communicate His revealed messages. 
These messengers are not only paragons of the highest moral virtues, 
such as truthfulness, honesty, and sagacity, but are also commissioned 
to carry Allah’s messages to His servants, namely, human beings. 
The mission of the messengers is very clearly expressed in the Quran: 

“We sent to you a messenger from among 
you to recite Our revelations to you and 
to purify you of sin and to instruct you in 
the Book and in wisdom and to teach you * 
what you did not know. ” (2:151 ). ^ 

•»*•* m 




Thus, according to the Quran, the duties of a messenger are to 
recite Allah’s revelations, to convey His messages to mankind, to 
instruct people to follow the tenets of the faith explained in the Quran, 
to teach people wisdom and the use of the intellect as well as the 
principles of good behaviour and to purify their inner selves so as to 
direct their hearts towards piety ( taqwa ) and virtue. There 
was complete commonality among the prophets as far as 
their teachings were concerned. They all taught people 
to believe in Allah, His Messengers, His Books, His 
angels, the Divine destiny and the Last Day. 

Belief in all the prophets of Allah is a 
religious imperative in Islam. The first 
prophet of Allah was the Prophet Adam, 
who was also the first man, and the last 
prophet of Allah was the Prophet 
Muhammad, who was also the “seal of 
the prophets” or khatam unnabbiyin. 

There will be no prophets after the 
Prophet Muhammad and the shariah 
of the Prophet Muhammad has 


superseded all the shariahs of the previous prophets, because of 
their all having been corrupted through changes made by the people. 
Every prophet of Allah has affirmed his faith in all the prophets 
before him and given tidings of those to follow. Every prophet before 
the Prophet Muhammad informed their people of the coming of the 
Last Prophet of Allah. As the Quran says: 

“And remember when Allah took a 


solemn pledge from His messengers 
^ saying; If after all the scriptures and the 
wisdom which 1 have bestowed upon you, 
there comes to you a messenger 
confirming that which is already with 
you, you must believe in him and help 


mmmtmirnmmJ ■ .nr* i ^iif 

You must also remember that the birth of the Prophet Isa was a 
miracle. He was bom without a father through a spirit of Allah 
(. roohunminho ). His mother was Mariyam, or Mary, whom the Quran 
refers to as a pious lady devoted completely to worshipping Allah. 
Another great prophet was the Prophet Musa who lived long before 
the Prophet Isa. He is called Kalimullah because Allah had directly 
spoken with him on Mount Sinai. 





True or False 

a. The prophets were sent by Allah to teach mankind true faith and correct 

b. A Muslim does not believe in any of the prophets except the Prophet 

c. All prophets received instructions from Allah. 

d. The Prophet Muhammad was the first prophet of Allah. 

e. Allah spoke with the Prophet Musa on Mount Sinai. 

/V — 

Match the Columns 


....... Jl 

Column A 

Column B 


The Prophet Isa 

The khatamunnabbiyin 

The Prophet Musa 


The Prophet Adam 

The first prophet 

The Prophet Muhammad 


The rules and laws of Islam 

Answer the following questions: 

a. Why did Allah send messenger or prophets? 

b. Why is the Prophet Muhammad called khatmunnabbiyinl 

c. What are the duties of a messenger? 


Chapter 6 

Belief in the Last Day 

Belief in the Last Day is also one of the articles of faith of a 
Muslim. The Last Day or Yawmul Akhirah, is the day when all living 
souls will be dead and Allah will resurrect all those dead and call 
them to account for their deeds. Only Allah knows what will happen 
at this time. The Quran says this very explicitly: 

Knowledge of this hour is possessed by none except 
Allah. Allah has kept this knowledge to Himself and 
has not revealed it to any of His creatures. Allah 
wants all mankind to keep themselves in a state of 
readiness, obey His ordinances from moment to 
moment and avoid doing things not allowed by Him. 


The Last Day is called by many names. Some of them are as 

Al-Haqqah (The Inevitable) 
Al-Qariah (The Calamity) 
Al-Ghashiyah (The Overwhelming) 
Yawm ad-Din (The Day of Judgement) 

Man should know that he is not here to stay forever. Allah says 
in the Quran, Kullu nafsin zaiqatul maut (Every soul has to taste the 
flavour of death). A man’s earthly life is very short in comparison to 
the eternal life that follows after death. A man’s fate in the life 
Hereafter will depend on how he has spent his life while on earth. If 
he has lived his life according to the teachings of the Quran, he will 
be rewarded by Allah in the Hereafter and sent to live permanently 
in Jennah, or paradise, otherwise hell will be his abode if he has 
flouted the laws of the Quran and spent his life in faithlessness, vice 
and dishonesty. Yawmul Akhirah is the day when all will stand before 
Allah to be held accountable for all their actions in the present world. 
The Quran says in Surah 97, verse 7-8: 

4 - 

“ Whoever has done an atom’s weight of 
good shall see it, and whoever has done 
an atom ’s weight of evil shall see it. ” Jr 


We must all understand that life on earth has an important 
purpose. Life in this world is a testing ground. The sole aim of our 
earthly existence is to attain success in the life to come. The life 
hereafter, unlike the present ephemeral world, is eternal and real. 
We can attain success only when our lives are spent according to the 
teachings of Allah; when we follow His commandments and tell 


others also to follow those commandments. The aim of our lives 
should be to act like a true and honest servant of Allah by spending 
our own lives truthfully and spreading the message of tawheed to 
the rest of mankind. 



True or False 

a. Belief in the Last Day is not one of the articles of faith. 

b. Allah will resurrect all the dead on the Day of Judgement. 

c. All the prophets knew when the Last Day would come. 

d. Every soul has to die one day. 

e. The Life Hereafter will be very short. 

Match the Columns 



Column A 

Column B 

Yawmul Akhira 

The Inevitable 
The Last Day 
The Day of Judgment 
The Overwhelming 

Answer the following questions: 

a. Define the Last Day or yawmul Akhirah. 

b. What will happen on the Day of Judgement? 

c. Can you give references about the Last Day from the Quran? 

d. The Last Day has been called by many names in the Quran. Can you 
name some and explain their meanings? 


Chapter 7 

Hadith and Sunnah 

In the Arabic language the world hadith (pi. ahadith ) means 
‘news’. It also means ‘saying’, ‘report’, ‘speech’, ‘a story’. In Islam 
what we mean by hadith is the Prophet Muhammad’s sayings, actions 
and advice. It also includes actions approved of in his presence as 
recorded by his companions. Muslims, since the actual lifetime of 
Muhammad, have called the reports of his sayings and doings the 
best hadith, and with the passage of time, its use was confined solely 
to reports of the Prophet Muhammad’s words and deeds. Ahadith 
are sometimes referred to as ‘traditions’. Very closely related with 
this word, hadith, is the word sunnah, which means ‘way of life’. It 
is used to mean the way of the Prophet Muhammad 

The hadith has been the subject of keen pursuit and constant 
study by scholars since the beginning of the history of Islam. Many 


of the devoted companions of Muhammad hankered after the 
knowledge of what the Prophet said or did. Abu Hurayra kept constant 
company with him for three years at the sacrifice of all worldly 
pursuits in order to see and hear what the Prophet did and said. The 
Prophet himself attached a good deal of importance to the knowledge 
of his own hadith. He asked his friends and followers to make them 
as widely known as possible, but taking care not to attribute anything 
to him falsely. He asked his followers to acquire knowledge — of the 
Quran and Sunnah — and teach it to others. The importance of 
following the sunnah or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad can be 
understood by this saying: 

The Prophet said: None of you (truly) believes until I am dearer 
to him than his own parents, his children and all mankind 
(Sahi al-Bukhari, Sahih-al-Muslim). 

The importance of hadith is highlighted again by an incident 
which took place during the early phase of Islam. When Muadh was 
setting out to take over as governor of Yemen, the Prophet Muhammad 
asked him on what basis he would govern. “On the basis of the 
Quran,” replied Muadh. “Suppose,” said the Prophet, “that you do 
not find it in the Quran.” “Then on the basis of the sunnah,’’ answered 
Muadh. In Islam, the role of the Prophet as a teacher, advisor and 
law-giver is emphasised in the Quran. Allah says: 

- Obey Allah and the Messenger. . . 

(3:132) j 

After the Quran, the sunnah or the traditions of the Prophet 
Muhammad, is the second source of Islam. The Quran lays down 
basic principles, while the sunnah clarifies those principles and 
explains how to put them into practice. 


The Chain of Transmission 

Each hadith, or saying of the Prophet Muhammad, records the 
chain of its transmitters — from the Prophet or from a companion or 
from a follower down to the last reporter or compiler. The scholars 
who compiled hadith called this chain of transmitters an isnad, or 
authority. They attached great importance to it, and considered it as 
an indispensable part of a hadith. They tried to determine the relative 
value of the reliability of the various isnads, or authorities. To this 
end, they produced a vast literature on the biographies of the 
transmitters, which is called asmaerijal. If anything amiss was found 
in the isnad, the authenticity of that hadith was considered 
questionable and hence removed from the compilation. The compiler 
adopted this method to sift the true hadith from the false, since many 
false ahadith were invented and spread by hypocrites and enemies 
of Islam after the death of the Prophet Muhammad 

There are six authentic compilations of ahadith, which are 
collectively called Siyasittah. The names of these are as follows: 

1 . Sahih al-Bukhari 

2. Sahih al-Muslim 

3. AbuDawud 

4. lhn Maja 

5. Al-Tirmidhi 

6. An-Nasai 

These were compiled by different scholars of ahadith. Out of 
six, two, Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim, are considered 
the most authentic ones. They are called the two Sahihs. These two 
are the most authoritative of all the six books of hadith. Sahih al- 
Bukhari was compiled by the noted scholar of hadith Muhammad 


Ismail bin al-Mughira al-Bukhari. He was born in 194 hijra in 
Kharasan. Imam Bukhari collected as many as 3 lakh ahadith and 
out of those he remembered 2 lakh ahadith. He checked each hadith 
for its authenticity and finally selected approximately 7,275, some 
of which were duplicates, and 2,230 without any duplication for his 
book Sahih al-Bukhari. He did a remarkable job of separating out 
all the forged ahadith. Besides these six books, there are some other 
books of ahadith, like the Muwatta by Imam Malik Ibn Anas, which 
was the first compilation of ahadith. 



True or False 

a. Sahih al-Bukhari is not an authentic book of ahadith. 

b . The companions of the Prophet Muhamamd are the narrators of ahadith . 

c. Sahih al-Muslim was compiled by Imam Bukhari. 

d. The sunnah means the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. 

e. The hadith book al-Tirmidhi of Siya Sittah was compiled by abu Dawud. 

f. The first hadith compilation Muwatta was compiled by Ibn Hanbal. 

Match the Columns 

Column A 

Column B 

Abu Hurayrah 

The traditions of the Prophet Muhammad 


The first compiler of ahadith in book form. 

Imam Bukhari 

The narrator of the greatest number of ahadith of the 

Imam Malik 

The compiler of the most famous book of ahadith. 


The govemer of Yemen. 

Answer the following questions: 

a. Define hadith and Sunnah... 

b. Name the six authentic compilations of ahadith. 

c. Define asmaerijal. 

d. Write a brief note on Ismail bin al Mughiral al-Bukhari. 


Prophethood and some 

You already know that belief in the prophets sent by Allah is 
one of the articles of faith. A Muslim’s faith is incomplete without 
this belief. Allah has sent prophets throughout the ages to tell mankind 
about Him and the path to real success in this world and the Hereafter. 
A prophet is a person chosen by Allah as His representative on 
earth. What the prophet does is to enlighten people, so that they may 
know the real truth. A prophet tells people of the reality of things 
and gives tidings of the next world. A prophet preaches to mankind 
about faith so that one can recognise Allah and one’s true purpose in 
this life. Allah has created all men so that they may worship Him. 
The purity of faith is belief in the one and only Allah, and this is 
what a pophet tries to preach to the people. Once a man recognizes 


Allah as his Master and Creator, he takes the path of 
righteousness and does only those acts which will earn Him a reward 
from Allah. 

Since the earliest times there have been many prophets who 
conveyed to mankind the message of Allah. The Prophet Adam was 
the first man and the first prophet of Allah. The Prophet Adam taught 
his progeny the concept of monotheism and that there was none worthy 
of worship except Allah. But the later descendants of Adam abandoned 
the path of monotheism and started worshipping false gods. The 
Prophet Nuh was sent to reform the descendents of Adam. But with 
the exception of a few, the majority of them did not believe in him. 
Allah then commanded the Prophet Nuh to build an ark and to board 
it with his followers. He next sent a devastating flood, which drowned 
all the disbelievers on this earth, except for for those who were with 

the Prophet Nuh on the ark. And from them the human race made a 
fresh start but again the new generation, with the passage of time, 
forsook the path of Allah. Allah again sent the prophets to teach 
mankind faith and how to worship God ( ibadaat ), so as to teach 
them true success and salvation. 

This went on repeatedly for many centuries and Allah each time 
sent a Prophet to convey His teachings to mankind. The prophet 
Ibrahim, the Prophet Ismail, the Prophet Yusuf, the Prophet Musa, 
and the Prophet Isa were some of the many Prophets to whom Allah 
assigned the tasks of preaching His message to mankind. According 


to a tradition, Allah sent about one lakh twenty four thousand 
messengers across the earth to teach mankind His religion. All the 
prophets taught mankind the one religion which is Islam. Allah tells 
us in the Quran that the religion which the Prophet Ibrahim followed 
was Islam. The Quran says: 

They say: “Become Jews or Christians if 
you would be rightly guided ( to 
salvation). ” You say: By no means! We * 
believe in the religion of Abraham the 
upright ones, and he associated no gods J 
(Surah 2: 135) | 

with Allah. 

At another place in the Quran Allah says: 

“Abraham was neither a Jew nor a 
Christian; but he was true in faith, and 
bowed his will to Allah’s (which is 
Islam), and he was no idolater. ” 
(Surah 3:67) 


All the prophets according to the Quran brought the same basic 
truth: man has been placed on this earth by Allah so that his obedience 
to his Maker may be put to the test. Man needs guidance if he is to 
follow the path desired for him by God. The true source of guidance, 
according to Islam, is to be found in prophethood. Those who believe 
in Allah and His prophets shall be rewarded and those who 
disbelieve shall be punished by Allah. The infallibility of the prophets 
in the conveyance of their message and the performance of their 
divine trust is a matter on which scholars have agreed for a long 


Prophethood is a gift 
which cannot be acquired. In 
His wisdom, God grants it to 
whosoever stands prepared for 
it and is capable of carrying its 
obligation. The Prophet 
Muhammad was indeed 
prepared to carry the prophetic 
message to all the races of 

Throughout his life the 
Prophet Muhammad, who is 
also rahmatullil aalamin, or a mercy to all the worlds, established 
justice and reconciled hopelessly disparate and hostile nations and 
groups. His wisdom, farsightedness, perspicacity, presence of mind, 
and resoluteness are evident in all that he said or did. From him 
streams of knowledge have sprung to which the great bend their 
heads in awe and wonder. 

The names of all twenty five prophets mentioned in the Quran 
are as follows: 



10. Yunus 





11. Alyasa 





12. Idris 





13. Musa 





14. Haroon 





15. Dawud 





16. Sulayman 





17. Shuayb 



18. Zakariyya 


Chapter 9 

The Story of the 
Prophet Hud ^ 

The Prophet Hud was the prophet of Allah, sent to the people 

of Ad, who were descendants of Iram, one of the Prophet Nuh’s 

The people of Ad first professed the religion of the Prophet 
Nuh $$ and were faithful to Allah. But as they prospered, they 
indulged in evil practices and worshipped idols. The Prophet Hud 
told them to worship Allah and to accept no other god but Him. 
He told them, moreover, to ask God’s forgiveness. 

They, in turn, did not listen to his call to recognise the real God 
and said to the Prophet Hud £uf, “O Hud! you have brought us no 
clear sign, and we are not the ones to desert our gods on your word! 
Nor shall we believe in you.” 


The Prophet Hud tried hard to convince his people and bring 
home Allah’s message that, he as a messenger of Allah, his mission 
was to guide his people to the worship of the one and only God. He 
tried to make them understand that he did not expect any reward 

from them, but only wanted to make them realise that their idols 
were man-made objects devoid of any real power. But the people of 
Ad kept on worshipping idols and mocked at the prophet Hud’s 
counsel and warning. They called him a ‘foolish man’ and a ‘liar’. 

Allah finally caused them to suffer misfortunes: first a famine, 
then black clouds over the sky, which they said were passing clouds 
that would be blown away. Finally, there came a fierce storm, which 
lasted for seven days and nights, destroying everything and everybody 
except the Prophet Hud *£}$ and his followers. 

The Prophet Hud £uf is buried on a hillock in Hadramawt which 
is 90 miles north of Mukalla in Yemen. 



Fill in the Blanks 

a. A Muslim’s faith is without belief in the Prophet (complete/ 


b. A prophet is chosen by (society/Allah). 

c. The Prophet Adam taught his progeny (monotheism/polytheism) 

d. The Prophet built an ark at the command of Allah (Nuh/Ibrahim). 

e. The Prophet was bom without a father by a miracle of Allah. (Isa/ 


f. The Prophet was the first prophet of Allah (Nuh/Adam). 

g. The Prophet was sent to the people of Ad (N uh/Hud) . 

h. Rahmatullil Alamin is one the titles of the Prophet 


Answer the following questions: 

a. Define prophethood. 

b. According to a tradition, how many messengers did Allah send? 

c. Write in brief the story of the Prophet Hud. 

d. Why did Allah send messengers to the world?. 


Chapter 10 

A Rightly Guided Caliph: 
Ali Ibn Abi Talib 

Ali was the son of the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle Abu Talib. 
Ali grew up as a member of the Prophet Muhammad’s household. 
He came to live with the Prophet and Khadija because Abu Talib 
had financial difficulties and a large family to support. And, in order 
to ease Abu Talib’s burden, both the Prophet and Khadija asked him 
to let Ali live with them in their house. Ali was only a child when he 
came to live with them. Ali once saw the Prophet Muhammad and 
his wife praying together and He asked them about this. The Prophet 
Muhammad introduced Islam to him and invited him to joint them in 
prayer. Ali wanted to ask his own father, Abu Talib, for advice about 
joining them in prayer. However, the next day, he approached the 
Prophet and said, “When Allah created me, he did not consult my 
father, so why should I consult my father in order to serve Allah?” 

Ali, staying in the house of the Prophet, received the best of 
both the worlds. He gained knowledge and many insights from the 


Prophet whose speech, actions and attitudes greatly influenced 
his life. When Allah commanded the Prophet to introduce Islam to 
his nearest relations, and all his kith and kin, the Prophet invited 
them to a feast. After the feast, the Prophet addressed them saying: 

‘O sons of Abd al Muttalib, I know of no Arab who has come to 
his people with a nobler message than mine. I bring you the best of 
this world and the next. Allah has commanded me to call you to 
Him. Which of you, then, will help me in this and be my brother and 

Nobody spoke except Ali, who said, “O Prophet of Allah, I 
will be your helper.” The Prophet put his hand on Ali and said, 
‘This is my brother, my executor and my successor among you. Pay 
attention to him and obey him.’ 

Ali grew up along with Zaid, Umm Kulthum, Zainab, Ruqaiyyah 
and Fatimah in the house of the Prophet. They all received the best 
education on earth. Ali learnt how to read and write. He later became 
one of the grammarians of the Arabic language. He is the narrator of 
many ahadith of the Prophet. Ali is also the source of many wise 
counsels and sayings. When the Prophet received Allah’s command 
to leave Makkah and migrate to Madinah, he asked Ali to lie in his 
bed on the night of his journey 
so that the people of Makkah, 
who had planned to kill the 
Prophet, would be deceived 
The Prophet said to Ali, 

‘Here is my cloak. Lie in my 
bed tonight, and cover 
yourself with it. The people 
who are coming to kill me 
will think you are me, but they 
will immediatelydiscover 
their mistake, so no harm 


will come to you. Tomorrow, return all the money and objects people 
have left here in trust. Then come to join me in Madinah.’ 

Ali was a brave man. He did exactly as the Prophet had asked 
him to do. Ali was married to the Prophet’s youngest daughter Fatimah. 
Later in his life, Ali proved to be a brave and powerful warrior. He 
took part in all the battles and served Islam like a true servant of 

Ali was among the Prophet’s nearest and dearest. When the 
Prophet passed away, Ali was personally involved in the washing 
of his body and the preparations for the burial. Ali was the closest 
of counsellors to all the Khalifa Rashidun preceding him. He became 
a Khalifa after the death of the third Caliph, Uthman bin Affan. When 
Ali assumed the Khilafat, the Muslim state was beset with many 
troubles. Uthman’s murderers were prowling in the streets of 


Madinah and the entire state was in total chaos. Ali accepted this 
leadership at a time of great crises. He had to deal with the murderers 
of Uthman, unrest among the people and war on the borders. He had 
also to face up to the continued opposition of Muawiyah, who having 
become the governor of Syria, wanted independent power. Besides 
these problems, Ali had also to pay attention to the needs and 
aspirations of the people, and keep a check on all his officials to 
ensure they were fair, just and uncorrupted; he had to care for the 
spiritual needs of all the Ummah; speak and write, organize meetings; 
and lead the salah. Ali took the reins of the caliphate in his hand and 
tried his best to regulate the affairs of the government. During his 
leadership he faced years of civil unrest, which eventuality led to 
civil war. He fought two battles and dealt firmly with the Kharijites 
and other dissidents. As a result of these conflicts, Ali was stabbed 
in the back while at his prayers by a Kharijite. As Ali lay dying, he 
called his sons and advised them to live with unity among themselves, 
to look to the life Hereafter and not 
seek a life of worldly riches. Ali 
lived very simply and took nothing 
from the state beyond what he 
needed for his basic sustenance. Ali 
and all other Khalifa ar- 
Rashiduns, or Rightly Guided 
Caliphs, were truthful, moral and 
sincere, and spent many of their 
nights in prayer and many of their 
days in fasting. They always put 
others above themselves and were 
humble and devout Muslims. They 
were true successors of the 
Prophet, whom they loved more 
than themselves. 



Fill in the Blanks 

a. was the father of Ali (Abu Talib/Hamza) . 

b . Ali grew up in (Makkah/Madinah) 

c. The Prophet’s daughter was married to Ali (Zainab/Fatimah). 

d. Ali became the Khalifa after the death of Uthman (Second/ 


e. Ali came into the fold of Islam as a (child/young man). 

f. Ali was assassinated by a (Kharijite/Muslim). 

g. Hasan and Husain were the of Ali (sons/grandsons). 

rs " - - - " !r? "~ " s 

Answer the following questions 

a. How did Ali come to stay in the house of the Prophet Muhammad 4|£? 

b. What happened when the Prophet Muhammad arranged a banquet and 
invited all his kinsmen to accept Islam? 

c. Describe the character of Ali in the light of his service to Islam. 


Chapter 1 1 

Islamic Society 

Islamic society is 
built on Islamic ideals 
and Islamic ideals are 
based on the principles 
laid down in the Quran 
and made explicit 
through the sayings and 
traditions of the Last 
Prophet of Islam. I will 
tell you a story to 
highlight the importance the earlier caliphs placed on the teachings 
of the Quran and the prophet in the building of Islamic society. 

Once the Caliph Omar was travelling from Madinah to Mecca. 
On the way one early morning, he noticed a Negro boy who was 
tending a flock of sheep. To find out whether the teachings of the 
Quran had — at least in their elementary form — reached this boy living 
in a faraway corner of the Arabia, he asked him if he would like to 
sell one of the lambs in the flock. The boy said, “No.” “But why?” 
asked the Caliph. “Why? - Because it is not mine,” rejoined the boy. 
“It is my master’s and I am his slave.” “What does that matter?” 
asked the Caliph. “Take this money, give that lamb to me, and go and 
tell your master that some wolf snatched away his lamb.” The boy 
stared hard at the Caliph. “I can cheat my master over there on the 
other side of the hillock. But can I,” he stressed, “cheat that Great 
Master who is watching over both of us and listening?” The boy 
was an illiterate. He had never read the Quran. But the atmosphere 
created by the Quran’s teachings had evidently influenced his mind. 
Tears rolled down the cheeks of the Caliph of Islam. He went to the 


boy’s master, paid him the bondage money and told him to set the 
boy free. 

The Quran is the 
greatest source of sublime 
teachings for human beings. 
It offers guidance to all 
seekers of righteousness. It 
aims at building a man who 
is ever conscious of Allah 
and His commandments. 
Indeed the purpose of the 
Quran is the perfection of 
man through development of a mind which is conscious of God, of 
himself, of his surroundings, of his present, past and future. God has 
made man His vicegerent and man is required to fulfil the demands 
of this role. His duty is to live in peace with himself and in peace 
with his external world and to be ever conscious of the ‘Life 
Hereafter’. As God says in the Quran: 

“ To their Lord all shall be gathered. 

— ir*~ • ‘ — hi | - if r u.jj i-**— * injiiiiu..iWiii iwri-i iini nr 

This belief in the Life Hereafter, or the return to God, leads 
mankind to live a life of righteousness. Allah says in the Quran: 

Surely, in the remembrance of Allah do i 
hearts find rest. (Quran, 13:28) 

Islamic society is thus based on pure Quranic ideals. Essentially, 
these ideals are faith in Allah, in His messengers, in His divine 
revelations, in His angels, in the Life Hereafter, and in the sunnah of 
the Prophet Muhammad These ideals form the bedrock of Islamic 



society. The social, cultural and 
religious ethics of Islamic society 
is rooted in these ideals which 
have been made absolutely clear 
to us through the life of the Last 
Prophet of Islam. The Prophet 
Muhammad was the embodiment 
of all such ideals. As Allah says 
in the Quran: 

You have indeed in the Messenger of 
Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for 
those whose hope is in Allah and the 
Final Day, and who engage much in the 
praise of Allah. (Quran 33:21) 



True or False 

v - — - - . . 

a. Islamic society is based on the teachings of the Quran and sunnah. 

b. The Quran aims at developing a mind which is conscious of Allah. 

c. Allah has not made man His vicegerent on earth. 

d. Man’s heart can find rest in the remembrance of Allah. 

e. Makkah was the capital of the Islamic state during the reigns of the rightly 
guided caliphs. 

f. All souls will be gathered by Allah on the Day of Judgement. 

r ; — \ 

Answer the following questions 

a. Explain the principles on which Islamic society is based. 

b. What lesson do you infer from the story of Caliph Umar and a Negro 

c. What should be man’s duty as God’s vicegerent on earth? 

d. Whose exemplary conduct does the Quran tell us to follow? 


Chapter 12 

The Life of the Prophet 

Exemplary Behaviour and Call to the People 

At the time of the 
Prophet, all over Arabia, 
there was chaos and 
lawlessness; feuds, deadly 
rivalry, theft, looting, etc. 
were the order of the day. 

Inter-tribal warfare, and 
tribal vendettas and murders 
were common occurrences. 

Life, property and honour * 
were nowhere safe. 

It was into such a hostile atmosphere that Islam came and Allah 
commanded the Prophet Muhammad to spread His word to all the 
people. But it was not an easy task, given the mayhem and darkness 
that the whole of Arabia was steeped in. As you already know, 
Makkah at this time was the centre of idolatry and most of its 
inhabitants were addicted to lying, thieving, cheating and other kinds 
of vices. But when Islam came, it denounced idolatry as well as all 
the forms of immorality which were rampant among the Quraysh. 

The people of Arabia obstructed all efforts of the Prophet to 
preach Islam with all the means at their command, including torture, 
economic boycott and physical violence. But the Prophet, as 
commanded by Allah, went to the various tribes, addressed them, 
introduced Islam to them and won support, even though very gradually. 


It was the personal example of the Prophet Muhammad that proved 
the best support for the spread of his message. Being a merciful and 
charitable man with concern, sympathy and compassion for the weak, 
the orphan, the deprived and the oppressed he set such an example 
for his followers in his behaviour and God consciousness, that they 
became ever more convinced of their faith and ever more anxious to 
adhere to his teachings. The noble, the rich, the weak, the deprived 
and the oppressed all entered the fold of Islam. Muhammad led his 
followers by example and so the cause of God and His prophet 
spread as men and women adopted the faith in wave upon wave. 
God commanded the Prophet to proclaim Islam openly and to bring 
His revelations to the public: 

“Warn, O Muhammad, your near 
relatives. Extend your gentle protection 
to all those who follow in your footsteps 
and obey you. As for those who disobey, 
proclaim your repudiation of their 
doings.... Proclaim what you are 
commanded and turn away from the 
polytheists. ” 




Muhammad invited his kinsmen to a banquet at home and tried 
to talk to them about Islam, but his kinsmen were not ready to listen. 
Then, he directed his call to the Makkans as a whole. One day he 
climbed to the top of al-Safa and called out: “O people of the Quraysh! 
If I were to tell you that I see an enemy force on the other side of the 
mountain, would you believe me?” They all answered, “Yes, indeed, 
for we trust you, and we have never known you to tell a lie.” 
Muhammad then said, “Know then I am a Warner and that I warn you 
of a severe punishment. O people of Makkah! God has commanded 
me to warn you, my nearest kinsmen, that I can guarantee that there is 


no god but God.” Abu Lahab, an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, 
sharply criticized him at this and later the other Makkans who opposed 
Muhammad ridiculed him and incited their poets to attack Muhammad 
in their poetry. But neither the rancour of Abu Lahab nor the hatred 
of other opponents in the Quraysh prevented the spread of the Islamic 
call among the people of Makkah. 

Frustrated, they went to Abu Talib to put pressure on his nephew 
not to preach his religion. But the Prophet Muhammad said to his 
uncle Abu Talib: “O Uncle! By God Almighty I swear, even if they 
should put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left so that I 
may abjure this cause, I shall not do so until God has vindicated it or 
caused me to perish in the process.” 

The Makkans indulged in false propaganda against the Prophet 
and Islam, trying their best to keep the people away from the Prophet. 
But this only created in the people a greater urge to find out more 
about him, which resulted in many people accepting Islam. They 
then shunned idolatry and led a life of piety, honesty and 
trustworthiness. They avoided all sorts of immorality. But those who 
accepted Islam risked their lives and their properties. The Quraysh 
tortured and persecuted them with extreme cruelty and also made 
them offers of wealth and prosperity to tempt them to resile from 
their faith. 


Those who were 
powerful when they 
converted to Islam, 
received the protection 
of their tribe and 
families. But those who 
had no such support 
were persecuted by the 
Makkans. They used to be caught hold of at noon under the blazing 
Arabian sun, made to lie on the hot sand, and then they were weighed 
down by heavy stones. Khabab bin A1 Harish was laid on his back 
on red hot coals and Bilal was put to all sorts of torture. Many died 
under torture but no one recanted. When the torture of the Makkans 
continued unabated, the Prophet directed the Muslims to migrate to 
Abyssinia whose ruler the Negus was known for his sense of justice 
and fair play. The migrants who settled down in Abyssinia found 
themselves in their new home free to worship their God in their 
own way. The Quraysh in Makkah were apprehensive that any open 
practice of their religion, especially salat and loud recitation of the 


Quran by Muslims, would continue to have a disastrous effect on 
the members of their tribe. Therefore, they made it impossible for 
the Muslims to carry out their religious duties openly. All kinds of 
tortures were reserved for the Prophet in the attempt to persuade 
him to give up his faith. Dirt and offal were thrown at him, he was 
made to walk over thorns and muck. Abuses were hurled at him 
and he was called mad, a magician and a wayward poet. He was 
boycotted, starved and beaten. The Prophet and his family stayed 
in a state of siege for three years. They were reduced to eating leaves 
and softened scraps of leather. It was at that time that the Miraj took 
place and the saying of salat five times a day was made compulsory 
for the Muslims. 

The Founding of Divine Rule 

When Islam became dominant, the Prophet sent preachers to 
new lands to teach people about Islam and its tenets. 

When preachers were dispatched to various areas, the Prophet 
told them, “Work with a tolerant spirit, do not act forcibly, give glad 


tidings to people; do not arouse hatred. Be cooperative, for you 
will meet people who have been used to other religions. When you 
go to them, first invite them to accept tawheed and prophethood; 
when they accept that, tell them that they are in duty bound to say 
their salat five times a day. After that tell them that zakat too is 
binding on them, so that in taking from the rich, you may give to 
the poor. And when they accept zakat as a duty, do not take the best 
they have. Be careful. The oppressed may curse you! There is 
nothing to stop their approaching God with their grievances.” 

This was the foundation on which was based the divine rule 
and khilafat of Rasulullah. The real purpose of the Prophet’s 
ordainment was the issue of a call to accept Allah, the reform of 
morals and the establishment of piety. The management of the affairs 
of state was to maintain law and order in the interests of the effective 
propagation of Islam. The Prophet sent his governor and walis to 


distant parts of the country, but all matters within Madinah were 
dealt with by him personally. He also looked after peace agreements 
with other peoples, prevention of tribal feuds, payment to delegations, 
issue of ordinances, punishment of criminals, etc. 

The Prophet used to be asked religious questions to which he 
would furnish answers. There was never any delay in his responses. 
Whenever, wherever, a question was asked, he gave a reply. These 
fatwas were an essential part of his religious duties. All cases 
pertaining to Madinah were decided by him while, for outlying parts 
of the country, he appointed Qazis. For all written matters, a regular 
department was established and a number of companions were 
entrusted with the relevant duties. Letters to heads of state, instructions 
for officials, pacts with non-Muslims, orders for the tribes — all were 
part of the duties entrusted to this department. Zaid bin Thabit was 
the person mainly responsible for the working of the department. 
Most of the Prophet’s visitors came in connection with the teachings 
of the faith. Bilal was specially deputed to look after them. The 
Prophet also used to look after the various needs of his guests 
personally, and would ask Bilal to arrange funds. If he did not have 
enough funds, he would borrow and then repay the debts when funds 
were available. Whatever presents the Prophet received personally 
went into these funds. 



True or False 

a. The people of Arabia created situations which were favourable for the Prophet 
Muhammad to preach Islam. 

b. Abu Talib was the father of the Prophet Muhammad. 

c. The Prophet’s uncle Abu Lahab was soft and kind-hearted towards the Prophet. 

d. Hamza was an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad. 

e. The Prophet Muhammad forced people to accept Islam. 

Match the Columns 

Column A 

Column B 


An uncle of the Prophet who was a sworn enemy of Islam. 


An uncle of the Prophet who was martyred at the Battle of 

Abu Lahab 

A muezzin of Masjid an-Nabawi. 


The adopted son of the Prophet 

Answer the following questions 

a. Describe the character of Arabia before the advent of Islam. 

b. How did the personal example of the Prophet Muhammad help spread 


c. What kinds of torture were the Muslims subjected to by the Makkans? 

d. What did the Prophet teach the preachers who went to preach Islam? 

e. Describe how the various matters relating to governance and preaching 
were taken care of by the Prophet. 


Chapter 13 

A Surah from the Quran 

Surah Ya’sin 

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 

Ya’sin. I swear by the Wise Koran that you 
are sent upon a straight path. 

This is revealed by the Mighty One, the 
Merciful, so that you may forewarn a nation 
who, because their fathers were not warned 
before them, live in heedlessness. For most 
of them the Word has been decreed, because 
they are unbelievers. 

We have bound their necks with chains 
of iron reaching up to their chins, so that 
they cannot bow their heads. We have put 
barriers before them and behind them and 
covered them over, so that they cannot see. 

It is the same whether or not you 
forewarn them: they will never have faith. 

You shall admonish none but those who 
observe Our percepts and fear the Merciful, 
though they cannot see Him. To these give 
news of pardon and a rich reward. 

It is We who will resurrect the dead. We 
record the deeds of men and the marks they 
leave behind: We note all things in a glorious 

You shall cite, as a case in point, the 
people of the city to which Our messengers 
made their way. At first We sent to them two 
messengers, but when they rejected both We 
strengthened them with a third. They said: 
4 We have been sent to you as apostles.’ But 
the people replied ‘You are but mortals like 
ourselves. The Merciful has revealed nothing: 
you are surely lying.’ 

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They said: ‘Our Lord knows that we are 
true apostles. Our only duty is to warn you 

The people answered: ‘Your presence 
bodes for us nothing but evil. Desist, or we 
will stone you or inflict on you a painful 

They said: ‘The evil you forebode can 
come only from yourselves. Will you not take 
heed? Surely you are great transgressors.’ 

Thereupon a man came running from 
the far side of the city. ‘My people,’ he said, 
‘follow those who have been sent to you. 
Follow those who ask no reward of you and 
are rightly guided. Why should I not serve 
Him who has created me and to whom you 
shall all be recalled? Should I serve other 
gods than Him? If it is the will of the Merciful 
to afflict me, their intercession will avail me 
nothing, nor will they save me. Indeed, I 
should then be in evident error, I believe in 
your Lord; so hear me.’ 

We said to him: ‘Enter Paradise,’ and he 
exclaimed: ‘Would that my people knew 
how gracious my Lord has been to me, how 
highly He has exalted me!’ 

After him, We sent down no host from 
heaven against his people: this We never do. 
There was but one shout — and they fell 
down lifeless. 

Alas for My bondsmen! They laugh to 
scorn every apostle that comes to them. Do 
they not see how many generations We have 
destroyed before them? Never shall they 
return to them: all shall be brought before 

Let the once-dead earth be a sign to them. 
We gave it life, and from it produced grain 
for their sustenance. We planted it with the 
palm and the vine, and watered it with 
gushing springs, so that men might feed on 
its fruit. It was not their hands that made all 
this. Should they not give thanks? 

Glory be to Him who made all things in 
pairs: the plans of the earth, mankind 
themselves, and the living things they know 
nothing of. 

The night is another sign for men. From 
the night We lift the day - and they are 
plunged in darkness. 

The sun hastens to its resting-place: its 


course is laid for it by the Mighty One, the 

We have ordained phases for the moon, 
which daily wanes and in the end appears like 
a bent and withered twig. 

The sun is not allowed to overtake the 
moon, nor does the night outpace the day. 
Each in its own orbit runs. 

We gave them yet another sign when We 
earned their offspring in the laden Ark. And 
similar vessels We have made for them to 
voyage in. We drown them if We will: none 
can help or rescue them, except through Our 
mercy and unless We please to prolong their 
lives awhile. 

When it is said to them: ‘Have fear of 
that which is before you and behind you, so 
that you may be shown mercy,’ they give no 
heed. Indeed, they turn away from every sign 
that comes to them from their Lord. 

36:47 And when it is said to them: ‘Give 
alms of that which God has given you,’ the 
unbelievers say to the faithful: ‘Are we to feed 
those whom God can feed if He chooses? 
Surely you are in glaring error.’ They also 
say: ‘When will this promise be fulfilled, if 
what you say be true?’ 

They must be waiting for a single blast, 
which will overtake them while they are 
disputing. They will have no time to make a 
will, nor shall they return to their kinsfolk. 

The Trumpet will be blown and, behold, 
they will rise up from their graves and hasten 
to their Lord. ‘Woe to us!’ they will say. 
‘Who has roused us from our resting-place? 
This is what the Lord of Mercy promised: 
the apostles have told the truth!’ And with 
one blast they shall be gathered all before Us. 

On that day no soul shall suffer the least 
injustice. You shall be rewarded according to 
your deeds. 

On that day the heirs of Paradise will be 
busy with their joys. Together with their 
spouses, they shall recline in shady groves 
upon soft couches. They shall have fruits 
therein, and all that they desire. 

‘Peace!’ shall be the word spoken by a 
merciful God. But to the guilty He will say: 
‘Away with you this day! Sons of Adam, did 
I not charge you never to worship Satan, your 
acknowledged foe, but to worship Me? 
Surely that was the right path. Yet he has led 

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a multitude of you astray. Had you no sense? 
This is the hell you have been threatened with. 
Burn therein this day on account of your 

On that day We shall seal their mouths. 
Their hands will speak to Us, and their very 
feet will testify to their misdeeds. Had it been 
Our will, We could have put out their sight: 
yet even then they would have rushed headlong 
upon their wonted path. For how could they 
have seen their error? 

Had it been Our will, We could have 
transformed them where they stood, so that 
they could neither go forward nor retrace their 

We reverse the growth of those to whom 
We give long life. Can they not understand? 

We have taught him no poetry, nor does 
it become him to be a poet. This is but a 
warning: an eloquent Koran to exhort the living 
and to pass judgement on the unbelievers. 

Do they not see how, among the things 
Our hands have made, We have created for 
them the beasts of which they are masters? 
We have subjected these to them, that they 
may ride on some and eat the flesh of others; 
they drink their milk and put them to other 
uses. Will they not give thanks? 

They have set up other gods besides God, 
hoping that they may help them. They cannot 
help them: yet their worshippers stand like 
warriors ready to defend them. 

Let not their words grieve you. We have 
knowledge of all that they hide and all that 
they reveal. 

Is man not aware that We created him 
from a little germ? Yet is he flagrantly 
contentious. He answers back with 
arguments, and forgets His own creation. He 
asks: ‘Who will give life to rotten bones?’ 

Say: ‘He who first brought them into 
being will give them life again: He has 
knowledge of every creature; He who gives 
you from the green tree a fire to light your 
fuel with.’ 

Has He who created the heavens and the 
earth no power to create their like? That He 
surely has. He is the all-knowing Creator. 
When He decrees a thing He need only say: 
‘Be,’ and it is. 

Glory be to Him who has control of all 
things. To Him you shall all be recalled. 

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